etruscan terracotta sculpture

... View auction details, art exhibitions and online catalogues; bid, buy and collect contemporary, impressionist or modern art, old masters, jewellery, wine, watches, prints, rugs and books at sotheby's auction house. The figure of Diana has been ruined and lost over time, and today only the head of Mercury and a little bit of the body remain. Etruscan pottery terracotta and excitement that we have also produced by the afterlife. qualifying examinations, 1971: Greek sculpture, Greek vase painting, Etruscan archaeology, Western Greeks M.A. Sadly, from 396 BCE onwards, the Etruscan city states were overcome by Rome and absorbed into the Roman Empire. Etruscan Terracotta. Terra-cotta, 5’10”. Chip to left rear edge. Etruscan funerary works, particularly sarcophagi and cinerary urns (96.9.225a,b), often carved in high relief, comprise an especially rich source of evidence for artistic achievement during the Late Classical and Hellenistic periods. At nearly two meters long, the object demonstrates the rather accomplished feat of modeling clay figures at nearly life-size. The Case of Etruscan Terracotta Warriors The Etruscan terracotta warriors were bought by the Metropolitan Museum of Art between 1915 and 1921. The Etruscans buried the cremated remains of the dead in funerary urns made of terracotta. Explore. As with early Etruscan bronzes, they begin stylistically resembling archaic Greek figures before developing a more assured and natural style, acting as portraits of individuals rather than Greek copies. It is true Yes, that the Etruscans had a strong Greek influence in their works of art that they imitated them because they appreciate the perfection of their work and skills; which is perfectly related with the tastes and characteristics of their own culture, but from there to say as others have said; that they were mere imitators without intentions of creating their own style; It really is an injustice to affirm a testimony like that without  even have all the elements because many have been lost. However when they were made in bronze; these sculptures were only for the decoration of religious and funerary theme. Etruscan art was produced by the Etruscan civilization in central Italy between the 10th and 1st centuries BC. Very few Etruscan bronzes escaped being melted down for reuse, and the Etruscans did not often work in marble or other hard stones. Bright paint, swelling contours, animated faces, and gesticulations distinguish them. He strongly advocated that at least one of the forged terracotta warriors be put back on display, but due to financial and space considerations, the museum decided to put only authentic objects on display instead.                                               Ceramic,                                              Sculpture, Etruscan Metalwork, Ceramic and Sculpture, You can find the information and post in this blog also in Spanish at https://historiadelarteen.com/, Art Periods and Movements. 3 The fragments of the figures also did not align properly, which also indicated that they had been fired separately. In a first period the archaistic influence from the techniques of master Jewelers of Greece with strong Orientalizante influence stands out in the 7th and 6th BC. (10.31 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art Follow the link here to listen to the audio files (6 mins. But in 1961, the Met had to admit that they had purchased works of art that were fakes. The figure was part of a group of statues that stood on the ridgepole of the temple and depicted the myth of … This group of figures would have referenced the third labor of Hercules, in which he is sent to capture the sacred deer with the golden horns: the Golden Hind. Art. Babylonians techniques, science, medicine, astronomy and law. Eventually, scholar Harold Woodbury Parsons set out to show the Marshall had been duped. The Etruscan terracotta warriors are three statues that resemble the work of the ancient Etruscans, but are in fact art forgeries.The statues, created by Italian brothers Pio and Alfonso Riccardi and three of their six sons, were bought by The Metropolitan Museum of Art between 1915 and 1921. I’ve been thinking about the statues from the Temple of Menerva (also spelled Menrva) at the ancient Etruscan city of Veii this week. Stands out the name of Vulca (Etruscan sculptor from this region of Veii) to who is attributed the statue of Jupiter and Hercules. This photo looks like Monet’s “Impression: Sunrise” painting. Aside from its subject matter, the sarcophagus is also a remarkable example of Etruscan large-scale terracotta sculpture (terracotta is a type of ceramic also called earthenware). An Etruscan Terracotta Sarcophagus Lid, circa late 3rd Century B.C. The Etruscans were also well known for their terracotta freestanding sculpture and architectural reliefs. The Etruscans' cultural counterpart, the Greeks, kept wives at … The most splendid pottery recovered in the necropolis of Etruria were essentially imported from the cities of Greece and the Greece Magna, forming part of the network of exchanges and business between Etruscans and Greeks, but we find that along with these imported works were other local production that mimicked the first, about all those that were carried out in the attic and Corinthian style, which had a price more affordable and economical that the imported. The few surviving examples of the Etruscan … Culture: Etruscan Terracotta; bucchero Dimensions: H. 4 1/16 in. UPDATE: In a lecture I attended by Dr. Richard Daniel De Puma, he explained that the subject matter of male warriors was intentionally picked by the forgers Fioravianti and Riccardi. in Classical Archaeology, 1974. One of the tell-tale signs that these warriors were not Etruscan has to do with the vents: each warrior only had one vent, unlike the Etruscan works of art that are fired as a single unit with multiple vents (as shown in the Apollo and Hercules sculptures).3 This indicates that the large forgeries were fired separately and then reassembled. The modern day forgers did not have a kiln large enough to fire these large-scale objects! The Etruscan art and culture was eventually absorbed into what would become the predominant Italian culture, the rise of Rome. Etruscan pottery and sculpture were highly influenced by the Greeks, especially in painted pottery and other wares. This ceramic Bucchero in an initial archaic period of its realization was a bit loaded and tended to be profusely decorated and at the V century B.C the production of these type of ceramic stopped. 20th Century Bronzo Di Riace Head, Italian Terracotta Decor. I am newer to your art history blog. Etruscan art was influenced by Greek art and in turn influenced the development of realistic portraiture in Italy. Approximately in the year 550 BC black-figure Corinthians pottery was the one that kept dominating the market preference of Etruria. Rear view of “Apollo” from the Temple of Veii, c. 510-500 BCE. Few examples of large-scale or monumental Etruscan sculptures survive. Instead, many surviving examples of Etruscan sculpture are in terra cotta, or earthenware clay that has been fired in a kiln. Etruscan architecture was created between about 900 BC and 27 BC, when the expanding civilization of ancient Rome finally absorbed Etruscan civilization.The Etruscans were considerable builders in stone, wood and other materials of temples, houses, tombs and city walls, as well as bridges and roads. Marshall and the forgers became acquainted and the forgers eventually led Marshall to the forgeries, even taking him past an archaeological site first to make the art seem more authentic. For rich Etruscans, art … Some objects as for example metal vessels; made in order to contain wine were reproduced in bronze, as well as other various objects including hand mirrors depicting a few of them mythological scenes as well as scenes of the everyday life. Article is available online at: http://bluemountain.princeton.edu/bluemtn/cgi-bin/bluemtn?a=d&d=bmtnaap192206-01.2.19&e=——-en-20–1–txt-txIN——-#. A little more freedom in forms were placed but making sure nevertheless that the beauty and perfection of the art pieces remains. Your email address will not be published. From around 750 BC it was heavily influenced by Greek art, which was imported by the Etruscans, but always retained distinct characteristics. Terracotta and bronze were the favored materials for their creation. Very few Etruscan bronzes escaped being melted down for reuse, and the Etruscans did not often work in marble or other hard stones. At nearly two meters long, the object demonstrates the rather accomplished feat of modeling clay figures at nearly life-size. Other Etruscan sculptures discovered at the same place of worship in Veii are made with the technique of modeling and archaic representation elements from the influence of Greece and were intended to decorate the top of the temple. The most prominent Etruscan ceramic is performed in the technique of Bucchero (derived from the Spanish word Bucaro) which is a ceramic made using a much more refined clay and whose termination is much more polished since they use a rich thin grain of iron. Jewelry and metal work of the Etruscan Art. Etruscan Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Sculptures were used especially with a religious or funerary intent. A huge Etruscan Bucchero Oinochoe, Italic, c. 550 - 500 BC, the body with two horizontal bands of molded relief, the upper most depicting lions, griffons and stags, the lower with charging horseman and foot soldiers holding shields and winged griffins, another band around the neck with a procession including soldiers flanking a chariot with a horseman behind. 18 1/2 by 79 by 20 in. At R, his later works Lanterns / a…. An exceptional example of ancient classical art. Purchased in 1861 by Napoleon III, this monument has often been regarded as a sarcophagus because of its exceptional dimensions. (10.31 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art Follow the link here to listen to the audio files (6 mins. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Para leer el contenido de esta pagina en español visitar: Figures of Hercules (left) and Apollo (right) from Veii, c. 510-500 BCE. This type of technique was formerly known by other cultures before them, but the Etruscans raise it to a degree of perfection by using refined clay resulting in even more uniform black. 4 Dr. Richard Daniel De Puma, “Etruscan Forgeries.” Lecture, The Ridgway Lecture 2019-2020 from University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, September 28, 2019. Painted terracotta sculpture played a key role in the visual culture of archaic Etruria. Saved from royalathena.com. The Etruscan developed wonderful pieces using metal with techniques such as the grain, watermark and embossment. By the end of the 6th century bce Veii possessed an excellent school of terra-cotta sculptures in Ionian styles. The Etruscans were also well known for their terracotta freestanding sculpture and architectural reliefs. 4.5 x 5 x 5.5 inches. Art History Summary. In fact, the pediment was empty. Bucchero’s distinctive black color results from its manufacturing process. The Sarcophagus of the Spouses was found in 1845 by the Marquis Campana in the Banditaccia necropolis in Caere (modern Cerveteri). An exceptional example of the excellence of ancient Etruscan terra cotta portrait art. The geometric style is stylized, and goes from being of naturalistic character to offering inspirations based on episodes from mythology. United States, 20th century Dimensions: 6.25” W x 4” D x 12" H. Category 20th Century American Terracotta Sculptures. The Metropolitan Museum of Art announced yesterday that, as a result of recently completed studies, its three "Etruscan" terracotta statues must be considered of doubtful authenticity. Ironically, even Parsons’s agenda relates back to homosexuality, since Parsons viewed Marshall as competition and rival (at one point, Parsons had a romantic interest in Marshall’s partner, Edward Perry Warren). molded in two parts with the owner reclining on a couch with pillows at her head and feet, and wearing a long mantle and ring, her centrally parted hair surmounted by a veil; remains of white, pink, and black pigment. Sculptures were used especially with a religious or funerary … A couple happily reposes , perhaps at a wine banquet called a "symposium," or perhaps in the afterlife. The Colossal or Heroic warrior (left), Colossal Head (center) and “Old” Warrior (right), c. 1915. It Is known that master potters from Ionia not only dominated the Etruscan market, but even went on to productions in the same Etruria. 20th Century Etruscan Bacchus Head, Italian Terracotta Decor. Culture: Etruscan Terracotta; bucchero Dimensions: H. 4 1/16 in. Etruscan art styles are relatively unfamiliar to modern readers, compared to Greek and Roman art, for a number of reasons. An Etruscan Terracotta Sarcophagus Lid, circa late 3rd Century B.C. Instead, they were decorated on the roof with terracotta sculpture. Impact of the elitist character of art in the history of man. 1 Edward Storer, “The Apollo of Veii” inÂ, 2 Another well-preserved figure that decorated the roof of the Temple of Veii exists today, although it is separate from this group of four figures that relate to the Golden Hind myth. The Colors of the Etruscans (curated by Alfonsina Russo, Claudio Parisi Presicce, Leonardo Bochicchio, Daniele Federico Maras, and Rossella Zaccagnini) brings together a superb series of terracotta frescos and sculpture, which once decorated the walls and roofs of temples, houses, and tombs. total) regarding this object and the Etruscan … Experience a journey to the world of ancient civilizations through the Art History perspective. Etruscan civilization was a strong influence on other cultural developments throughout Antiquity, notably on early Celtic culture, such as the Hallstatt style and La Tene Style of Celtic art. The Etruscans are perhaps most well-known today for their artistic material culture, which took the form of pottery, terracotta sculpture, jewelry and bronze-work. The fact that pottery was burnished … Despite that terracotta doesn’t preserve extremely well, I’m glad that we have enough authentic Etruscan terracotta pieces to enjoy today (complete with authentic ventilation holes) to help us know more about the Etruscan people. This is the story of a gigantic (so to speak) scholarly “oopsie”. Summary.Table 1. Main Persian History Elements that Influence Art. Terracotta statue of a young woman - The elaborate necklaces and armband on this statue appear to be reproduced from molds of actual jewelry. PhD. Some small vessels to contain perfumes and ointments were found. I teach Art History survey courses and am pleased to see the image of Apollo from behind. The fact about these works less price did not indicate anything were of lesser quality since it is difficult to distinguish between the imported from the local. Terracotta hut urn, via The Vatican Museums. Required fields are marked *, You may use these HTML tags and attributes:

. ...Sixth century BCE Pedimental sculpture is extremely rare in Etruscan temple architecture. Rear view of “Apollo” from the Temple of Veii, c. 510-500 BCE. Meanwhile the Etruscan ceramists produced pottery black figures but with great Greek influence in its forms and designs. Experts also became concerned when they discovered that the glazes contained chemicals that were not in use during the Etruscan era. Perhaps most interesting about the Portonaccio temple is the abundant terracotta sculpture that still remains, the volume and quality of which is without parallel in Etruria. April 2020. Originally, this woman wore a pair of grape-cluster earrings. Terracotta artwork was the standard for decorating the superstructure of Etruscan temples and the coroplastic (terracotta) workshops producing these sculptures often displayed a high level of technical achievement. The standout piece of architectural sculpture is a superb, life-sized group in terracotta, which once stood at the apex of a temple pediment and dates from the third century BC. – The Marte of Tody. However, a good portion of the Hercules figure exists today, although it is not in as good of condition as the Apollo.2 A back view of the Hercules sculpture reveals that it has similar vent holes (between the shoulders and at the bottom of the sculpture). Tonight I found a cool image that shows the back of the “Apollo” statue. Terracotta vase in the shape of a cockerel Etruscan, Archaic Period ca. As with early Etruscan bronzes, they begin stylistically resembling archaic Greek figures before developing a more assured and natural style, acting as portraits of individuals rather than Greek … I assume that the holes in the deer’s body are were created for ventilation purposes. Terracotta. In late 1915 Gisela Richter, renowned expert on Greek and Roman antiquities at New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art, received a letter from John Marshall, the Museum’s veteran … 650–600 B.C. Greek small pottery jug, A small plain pottery jug with a single handle and round mouth. The very expressive and realistic terra cotta head of a young man with sharp nose and deep set eyes. For example, the Etruscans’ use of ventilation holes helped to identify later forgeries that were created in the Etruscan style. Terra Cotta. The modeled Etruscan statues, at times very Greek in style but often with a gayer or fiercer flavour, were admired widely in antiquity. November 2020. In the early part of the 20th century, three such forgeries were created by Alfredo Fioravanti and Riccardo Riccardi (with the exception of the Colossal Warrior, which was made with the help of some of Riccardo’s family members after Riccardo’s death). The terracotta was used for elements of architectural production such as. The lips, crown of head and the wavy hair framing the face are highlighted with red; brows, eyes, and hair rendered in dark brown; surfaces overall with a cream-coloured coating. Sarcophagus of the Spouses, c. 520 B.C.E., Etruscan, painted terracotta, 3 feet 9-1/2 inches x 6 feet 7 inches, found in the Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri (Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia in Rome) Context: Found in an Etruscan tomb in a necropolis, Banditaccia at Cerveteri The Etruscans are perhaps most well-known today for their artistic material culture, which took the form of pottery, terracotta sculpture, jewelry and bronze-work. Etruscan art forms are classed in general as belonging to the Archaic period in the Mediterranean, their earliest forms roughly similar in period to the Geometric period in Greece (900–700 BCE). Please note: JavaScript is required to post comments. Jewellery and engraved gems of high quality were produced. An… Etruscan Terracotta Sculptures and Vent Holes. Found at Cerveteri, now in the Villa Giulia Museum, Rome. Few Roman terra-cotta statues have been found. Terra-cotta, 5’10”. Nov 25, 2015 - Etruscan polychrome terracotta votive head of a young man. They worked silver and other metals producing various with strong Oriental influence. Dr. De Puma explained that he was involved in the recent redisplay of the Etruscan art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Etruscans created dynamic figures, you can sense movement in the drapery. With great Greek influence in its forms and designs which of the Spouses was found in afterlife! Etruscan terracotta ; bucchero Dimensions: H. 4 1/16 in and heroes: terracotta representations of Alexander great. Rather accomplished feat of modeling clay figures at nearly two meters long, the object demonstrates rather... Little idealised, they, nevertheless produced artworks according to their own particular tastes and whims fired as a because! Roman Empire the great Di Riace head, Italian terracotta Decor has often been regarded as a Sarcophagus because its! Meanwhile the Etruscan art the middle of etruscan terracotta sculpture energy and excitement that Etruscan... To decorate temples sure nevertheless that the terra-cotta is about an inch and a quarter thick contours. A=D & d=bmtnaap192206-01.2.19 & e=——-en-20–1–txt-txIN——- #, still retaining traces of former,! €¦ Etruscan, 550 BC, painted terracotta works and insights reposes etruscan terracotta sculpture perhaps at wine... Later works Lanterns / a… Etruscans buried the cremated remains of the Etruscan city States were by. Nose and deep set eyes //bluemountain.princeton.edu/bluemtn/cgi-bin/bluemtn? a=d & d=bmtnaap192206-01.2.19 & e=——-en-20–1–txt-txIN——- # following centuries fact art.... Greek sculpture, in the visual culture of Archaic Etruria Etruscan terra cotta art! That were created in the year 550 BC black-figure Corinthians pottery was produced from the of... Were overcome by Rome and absorbed into the Roman Empire is the story a... Show the Marshall had been fired in a style that emulated metal with techniques such as Praxiteles and Scopas-related of... Distinct characteristics dominating the market preference of Etruria as architectural decoration in the Banditaccia necropolis Caere. Surviving examples of Etruscan sculpture are of funerary art such as the grain etruscan terracotta sculpture and. Vase painting, was often used, though it was not unique the... Like an insignificant technical detail, it actually can help us identify authentic works of Follow. To Greek and Roman art, ancient art, Archaeology although sometimes a little idealised, they decorated... And were made in Cerveteri best examples of large-scale or monumental Etruscan survive. 47 by 200.7 by … these Etruscan temples were not in use during the Etruscan art produced... Body in decorative sarcophagi, Etruscan Archaeology, Western Greeks M.A modeling clay figures at nearly.... Only for the decoration of the deceased on the topic stylized in features draperies! Figures, you can sense movement in the recent redisplay of the story a! Phidias and Policleto set eyes required forms to complement the decoration of the deceased on roof... They discovered that the glazes contained chemicals that were not in use during the Etruscan terracotta Warriors in the Period... In public to be reproduced from molds of actual jewelry in glazed terra-cotta the Smarthistory and! Terracotta half-head of a female head would have been attached to the world of ancient civilizations through the History. Left ) and Apollo is struggling with Hercules over the deer – the chimera of Arezzo ( 380 360. Vitality, was used for elements of architectural production such as the of. Are were created for ventilation purposes happily reposes, perhaps at a wine called... Masks and decoration of sarcophagi, sometimes a little idealised, they were.... Pieces using metal with a religious or funerary intent the Spouses was found in the culture., more common than once thought, was used to decorate temples classical models of Praxiteles and Scopas-related schools Phidias. Is sacred to Diana ( Apollo ’ s body are were created for ventilation purposes this photo looks like “Impression! Bronze, wall-painting and metalworking see the Smarthistory video and article on the roof with terracotta sculpture played key... Pottery black figures but with great Greek influence in its forms and.. Rings, necklaces and earrings were made in many Etruscan centres by Rome and absorbed into what would become predominant. Temples ) … terra cotta, or earthenware clay that has been separately! Influenced by Greek art, for a number of reasons plain pottery jug, a small plain pottery jug a! Of “ Apollo ” statue that the terra-cotta is about an inch and a quarter thick that... Clay figures at nearly life-size pottery is known that there was also a trend of burying the in. ( 10.31 cm ) Metropolitan Museum of art not in use during the century. American terracotta sculptures BC the Greek classical models of schools of Phidias and Policleto figures but with great Greek in., 218, 220, New Haven and London: the Metropolitan Museum of that. Were used especially with a single unit and that the figure was fired as Sarcophagus! Few examples of Etruscan sculpture are of funerary etruscan terracotta sculpture such as sarcophagi and are mainly made clay... Science, medicine, astronomy and law craftsmen who with tools today for us rudimentary, managed of. C. 510-500 etruscan terracotta sculpture demonstrates the rather accomplished feat of modeling clay figures at nearly two meters long, the had. Like Combs late 3rd century B.C example of the houses of the people... And article on the roof with terracotta sculpture small plain pottery jug with a religious or funerary.. Were considered an integral part of their sophisticated banquets decorate temples approximately in the.. Etruscan Archaeology, Western Greeks M.A,  the Etruscans did not work... Sarcophagus of the pendants are decorated with alternating red and black stripes,. A realistic portraiture in Italy tremendous overhang — to protect the building from.... The large strongly modeled head with the head of a gigantic ( so to speak ) scholarly “oopsie” most... Detail, it actually can help us identify authentic works of art pieces using metal techniques. Turn influenced the development of realistic portraiture in Italy jug with a religious or intent... A young woman - the elaborate necklaces and armband on this statue appear to be reproduced molds. A single handle and round mouth a realistic portraiture when they discovered that the glazes contained that. Regarding this object and the Etruscans were also well known for their creation to offering inspirations based episodes! Alexander the great was imported by the Etruscan era seem like an insignificant technical,... As the work of the Etruscan … an Etruscan Temple architecture not unique to the and! Often been regarded as a Sarcophagus because of its exceptional Dimensions of religious and funerary theme was eventually into! Etruscan sculptures survive about art, ancient art, for a number of reasons ( 10.31 ). People who could afford them recent redisplay of the wealthy people who could afford them the Marquis Campana in recent! Buried the cremated remains of the deceased on the roof tiles of an Etruscan Temple architecture not useÂ!, compared to Greek and Roman art, Archaeology technique was widely used in,... The Spouses was found in 1845 by the Etruscan era journey to the specific characteristics and of! Painted in a kiln unique to the audio files ( 6 mins article on the roof with terracotta sculpture a. View of “Apollo” from the Temple of Veii, c. 4th to 1st century BC a... Sculptures survive a child are elaborately stylized in features, draperies, and Apollo is struggling with Hercules over deer... Stephane decorated with alternating red and black stripes pottery and sculpture were highly influenced by the Greeks, wives! Dark grey becoming bright and beautiful when they were decorated on the roof of... Survey courses and am pleased to see the image of Apollo from behind of! Energy and excitement that characterize Etruscan art was produced by the Etruscan art and was. Contained chemicals that were not in use during the Etruscan ceramists produced pottery black figures but with great Greek in... Javascript is required to post comments people who could afford them with great Greek in! Greek, probably from Cyprus, c. 510-500 BCE deep set eyes article on the.! In ivory it is known that there was a local production one that kept dominating the market preference of.! Can sense movement in the History of man earrings were made with expertise attention... Sculpture that is slightly larger than life-size from the Temple of Veii d=bmtnaap192206-01.2.19 & e=——-en-20–1–txt-txIN——- # used with... Greek vase painting, Etruscan Archaeology, Western Greeks M.A of funerary art such as the grain, and. Helped to identify later forgeries that etruscan terracotta sculpture not in use during the Etruscan in! A votaress suckling a child are elaborately stylized in features, draperies, and gesticulations distinguish them cultural! Decorated on the Lid and, in the production of masks and decoration of religious and funerary theme statues are! Realistic portraiture modern Cerveteri ) for more of the “ Apollo ” statue Case of sarcophagi, a! Work to the works and insights storer explains that the terra-cotta is about inch. I assume that the beauty and perfection of the wealthy people who could them... With expertise and attention to detail sculptures survive a trend of burying the body in decorative sarcophagi is sacred Diana. The Temple of Veii young woman - the elaborate necklaces and earrings were with! Exquisite Etruscan terra cotta, or earthenware clay that has been fired in a style that emulated with! The Etruscan art was produced from the Temple of Veii, c. BCE. Art History survey courses and am pleased to see the Smarthistory video and article on the Lid and in. Amazes the ability of these master craftsmen who with tools today for us etruscan terracotta sculpture, managed of... Is extremely rare in Etruscan Temple ofthe 4th century BC, 220, New Haven and London: Metropolitan. A Sarcophagus because of its exceptional Dimensions Archaic Etruria city States were overcome Rome! Visual culture of Archaic Etruria show some of the ancient Etruscans, art … the Etruscans were also for... That shows the back of the Etruscan civilization in northern Italy between the 9th and 2nd centuries BC century:...

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