list of semitic languages

Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Search. 5 Later history. A partial list of the contributors and their contributions will be found in the following pages. The kingdoms of ancient South Arabia (Sabaʾ, Minaea, Qataban, and Ḥaḍramawt) left numerous inscriptions in the Old South Arabian (OSA) languages; a descendant of the OSA alphabet was used for the composition of Geʿez (Classical Ethiopic) literature and is still used by the modern Ethiopic languages. By the early 2nd millennium bce, Akkadian dialects in Babylonia and Assyria had acquired the cuneiform writing system used by the Sumerians, causing Akkadian to become the chief language of Mesopotamia. PLAY. Yiddish ( Germanic) Yidgha ( Iranian) Yogur (also known as Yoghur, (Mongolic) Sarï Uyghur, and (Mongolic) Yellow Uyghur, Mongolic) Yokutsan languages. Inscriptions using the Phoenician alphabet (from which the modern European alphabets were ultimately to descend) appeared throughout the Mediterranean area as Phoenician commerce flourished; Punic, the form of the Phoenician language used in the important North African colony of Carthage, remained in use until the 3rd century ce. By the third century CE, Hebrew was considered a dead language. Then, over a thousand years later, it sprung back to life, making it the only successfully revived language in existence. It has around 5 million native speakers, with an additional 4 million second language speakers, and it’s one of the only languages spoken today to have been revived from a dead language. Two of the Semitic languages, Hebrew and Arabic, are the holy languages of major religions, Judaism and … Beyond North and East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, there are significant populations of speakers of this language family in Europe, North America and Australasia. Standard Arabic is spoken as a first language by more than 200 million people living in a broad area stretching from the Atlantic coast of northern Africa to western Iran; an additional 250 million people in the region speak Standard Arabic as a secondary language. Despite the fact that they are no longer regularly spoken, several Semitic languages retain great significance because of the roles that they play in the expression of religious culture—such as Biblical Hebrew in Judaism, Geʿez in Ethiopian Christianity, and Syriac in Chaldean and Assyrian Christianity. In the Arabian Peninsula, written records date back to the middle of the 1st millennium bce. Evidence of Old Akkadian is found in the Sumerian literary tradition. For example, take the word “peace.” It is. The table below lists the most populous Semitic languages. The following is a list of some modern and ancient Semitic-speaking peoples and nations: STUDY. In spoken form, on the other hand, the common origin of these languages is much easier to notice. The best known of the ancient Canaanite languages, Classical Hebrew, is familiar chiefly through the scriptures and religious writings of ancient Judaism. Although the variation in dialects (which include differences in grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary) across the Arabic speaking world is considerable, all 30 varieties are still considered part of one language. With the beginning of the twenty-first volume (October, 1904) the editors will continue Twenty volumes have been issued. Plus, Germanic languages have a lot of breathy consonants, as well as an unusual verb-shift for the past tense — in both cases unlike other Indo-European languages but like Semitic languages. He took it from biblical texts, where, is one of Noah’s three sons from the Book of Genesis, and the Greek version of his name is, . benjohnsand. Many of the numerous languages of Ethiopia are Semitic, including Amharic (with some 17 million speakers) and, in the north, Tigrinya (some 5.8 million speakers) and Tigré (more than 1 million speakers). A Western Aramaic dialect is still spoken in the vicinity of Maʿlūlā, Syria, and Eastern Aramaic survives in the form of Ṭuroyo (native to an area in eastern Turkey), Modern Mandaic (in western Iran), and the Neo-Syriac or Assyrian dialects (in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran). The short answer is no. This is a list of Proto-Semitic stems (triconsonantal roots and extensions) with their reflexes in several Semitic languages (i.e. Log in Sign up. In addition to the important position that it occupies in Arabic-speaking societies, literary Arabic exerts a major influence throughout the world as the medium of Islamic religion and civilization. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The term came to include Arabs, Akkadians, Canaanites, Hebrews, some Ethiopians, and Aramaean tribes. For example, take the word “peace.” It is salām– in Arabic, šlām-āʼ in Aramaic, šālôm in Hebrew and sliem in Maltese. Yi language. For a European comparison, we could say that Arabic and Hebrew are about as similar to each other as English and German: There are clearly common words that sound similar, but there are also a lot of differences, and simply speaking English to a German speaker (who doesn’t speak English) definitely won’t result in flawless communication! From the end of the 2nd millennium bce, languages of the Canaanite group began to leave records in Syro-Palestine. One big difference between many of the Semitic languages is that they use various writing systems: Arabic uses the Arabic alphabet (written right to left), Amharic, Tigrinya and Tigre are all written with the Ge’ez syllabary (a writing system where one symbol represents one syllable, written left to right), Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet (written right to left) and Maltese is written with the Roman alphabet (written left to right). In the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula, traces of early North Arabian languages, including Liḥyanite, Safaitic, and Thamudic, have been uncovered. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). While there are many very similar words between the languages, there are also many words in each language which are completely different. But are languages in this family actually mutually intelligible with each other? All together, there are currently around 380 million native speakers of Semitic languages in the world, with the vast majority of those being speakers of Arabic. Isolated inscriptions in Old Aramaic dialects date back to the 9th century bce. The Atlantic languages of Semitic or "Semitidic" (para-Semitic) origin are a disputed concept in historical linguistics put forward by Theo Vennemann.He proposed that Semitic-language-speakers occupied regions in Europe thousands of years ago and influenced the later European languages that are not part of the Semitic family. “Semitic” Languages. They represent, in a large measure, the growth of Semitic Studies in America. Semitic Languages. Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.A 2009 study proposes that it was spoken from about 3750 BCE in the Levant during the Early Bronze Age. 15,000 tablets (23rd Century) Akkadian. Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, is the next most spoken Semitic language with around 65 million native speakers. Semites, Semitic peoples or Semitic cultures was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group. Bronze Age. Sep 15, 2017 - Explore mharp's board "semitic languages" on Pinterest. Arabic is by far the most widely spoken of the Semitic languages, with around 300 million native speakers spread across the vast majority of North Africa and throughout the Arabian Peninsula. The following table contains the top 100 languages by estimated number of native speakers in the 2007 edition of the Swedish encyclopedia Nationalencyklopedin.As census methods in different countries vary to a considerable extent, and given that some countries do not record language in their censuses, any list of languages by native speakers, or total speakers, is effectively based on estimates. In terms of structure, scholars largely agree on the main clusters: Akkadian; the Northwest Semitic group, comprising the Canaanite and Aramaic groups, together with Ugaritic and Amorite; Arabic; the Old South Arabian languages; the Modern South Arabian languages (not descended from the Old South Arabian group); and Ethiopic. We cover that and more down below. Most of the written and broadcast communication in the Arab world is conducted in this uniform literary language, alongside which numerous local Arabic dialects, often differing profoundly from one another, are used for purposes of day-to-day communication. This was the name of a sun god worshipped in Emesa, in the Roman province of Syria. He took it from biblical texts, where Shem is one of Noah’s three sons from the Book of Genesis, and the Greek version of his name is Sēm. Although as a spoken language Hebrew gave way to Aramaic, it remained an important vehicle for Jewish religious traditions and scholarship. Iron Age. This is because most educated native speakers are capable of switching between their regional variety and Modern Standard Arabic, thereby having mutually intelligible conversations. Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples. Early in the 1st millennium bce, documents in the Aramaic languages appeared. Semite, member of a people speaking any of a group of related languages presumably derived from a common language, Semitic (see Semitic languages). Arabic, for example, has many borrowed words from French, For a European comparison, we could say that Arabic and Hebrew are about as similar to each other as. A Arabic language‎ (2 C, 6 P) Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, and Ugaritic are derived from the Northwest Semitic group; Arabic and the Ethiopic languages belong to the South Semitic branch. Though written in Akkadian, those tablets contain aberrant forms that reflect the languages native to the areas in which they were composed. 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